"In medieval prisons, inmates were punished with a vile device called a 'cat-o'-nine-tails' — a whip made of nine knotted thongs of cotton cord designed to lacerate the skin and cause intense pain. Reforms have rightfully eliminated such cruelty to human prisoners, but for animals in circuses, corporal punishment is still the norm, as PETA's [People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals] new undercover investigation of Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus has revealed. It's 2009, yet elephants in circuses are still beaten with bullhooks — a rod resembling a fireplace poker with a sharp metal hook on the end — and tigers and other animals are violently whipped." (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) The author reveals Ringling's abusive practices and concludes that current law "does not protect animals in circuses. It's up to the public to say, 'Enough is enough!'"